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Flour is on of the basic food materials. It can be used for bread and for other types of food. General method of flour-making stayed the same for thousands of years - grinding. It is just that the technology progressed.
With industrialization and making of the bread with machines, industrialists tried to speed up the production. This is done with bread improvers which speed up mixing and rising in different ways.
Wheat is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food and its history is long. It was one of the first crops that could be easily cultivated in larger quantities and with that it was a key factor enabling the emergence of city-based societies. Read more about history of wheat.
Bread is one of the most widespread types of food. It appeared at roughly the same time in different parts of the world made from flours that were available locally. Appearance of the bread marked changing of the society from hunter-gatherer to agricultural.